Gramatyka angielska

dział

Past Simple czyli czas przeszły prosty

dział: Czasy gramatyczne (Tenses)

Past Simple czyli czas przeszły prosty jest stosunkowo prosty w zastosowaniu, posiada jednak wiele nieregularnych form, które trzeba opanować metodą pamięciową. Pocieszeniem może jedynie być fakt, iż czasownik w formie Past Simple jest w każdej osobie w takiej samej formie.

Past Simple stosujemy wtedy, kiedy mowa jest o czynności przeszłej, zakończonej, nie mającej żadnego powiązania z teraźniejszością.

Np.: I was at the movies yesterday – Byłam wczoraj w kinie.

       I drove home after work – Po pracy pojechałam do domu.

       I played chess – Grałam w szachy.

W przypadku czasowników regularnych tworzymy Past Simple poprzez dodanie końcówki –ed, lub –d, do jego formy podstawowej, np.: played, wanted, decided, rented. Czasowniki nieregularne nie mają niestety określonej reguły tworzenia, dlatego ich form trzeba nauczyć się na pamięć. Zapamiętując tę przysłowiową tabelkę, warto jest też od razu uczyć się formy past participle, oszczędzi nam to trudów przy nauce czasów perfect.

I tak np.:

 

Forma podstawowa

Simple Past

Past Participle

awake

awoke

awoken

be

was, were

been

bear

bore

born

beat

beat

beat

become

became

become

begin

began

begun

bend

bent

bent

beset

beset

beset

bet

bet

bet

bid

bid/bade

bid/bidden

bind

bound

bound

bite

bit

bitten

bleed

bled

bled

blow

blew

blown

break

broke

broken

breed

bred

bred

bring

brought

brought

broadcast

broadcast

broadcast

build

built

built

burn

burned/burnt

burned/burnt

burst

burst

burst

buy

bought

bought

cast

cast

cast

catch

caught

caught

choose

chose

chosen

cling

clung

clung

come

came

come

cost

cost

cost

creep

crept

crept

cut

cut

cut

deal

dealt

dealt

dig

dug

dug

dive

dived/dove

dived

do

did

done

draw

drew

drawn

dream

dreamed/dreamt

dreamed/dreamt

drive

drove

driven

drink

drank

drunk

eat

ate

eaten

fall

fell

fallen

feed

fed

fed

feel

felt

felt

fight

fought

fought

find

found

found

fit

fit

fit

flee

fled

fled

fling

flung

flung

fly

flew

flown

forbid

forbade

forbidden

forget

forgot

forgotten

forego (forgo)

forewent

foregone

forgive

forgave

forgiven

forsake

forsook

forsaken

freeze

froze

frozen

get

got

gotten

give

gave

given

go

went

gone

grind

ground

ground

grow

grew

grown

hang

hung

hung

hear

heard

heard

hide

hid

hidden

hit

hit

hit

hold

held

held

hurt

hurt

hurt

keep

kept

kept

kneel

knelt

knelt

knit

knit

knit

know

knew

know

lay

laid

laid

lead

led

led

leap

leaped/leapt

leaped/leapt

learn

learned/learnt

learned/learnt

leave

left

left

lend

lent

lent

let

let

let

lie

lay

lain

light

lighted/lit

lighted

lose

lost

lost

make

made

made

mean

meant

meant

meet

met

met

misspell

misspelled/misspelt

misspelled/misspelt

mistake

mistook

mistaken

mow

mowed

mowed/mown

overcome

overcame

overcome

overdo

overdid

overdone

overtake

overtook

overtaken

overthrow

overthrew

overthrown

pay

paid

paid

plead

pled

pled

prove

proved

proved/proven

put

put

put

quit

quit

quit

read

read

read

rid

rid

rid

ride

rode

ridden

ring

rang

rung

rise

rose

risen

run

ran

run

saw

sawed

sawed/sawn

say

said

said

see

saw

seen

seek

sought

sought

sell

sold

sold

send

sent

sent

set

set

set

sew

sewed

sewed/sewn

shake

shook

shaken

shave

shaved

shaved/shaven

shear

shore

shorn

shed

shed

shed

shine

shone

shone

shoe

shoed

shoed/shod

shoot

shot

shot

show

showed

showed/shown

shrink

shrank

shrunk

shut

shut

shut

sing

sang

sung

sink

sank

sunk

sit

sat

sat

sleep

slept

slept

slay

slew

slain

slide

slid

slid

sling

slung

slung

slit

slit

slit

smite

smote

smitten

sow

sowed

sowed/sown

speak

spoke

spoken

speed

sped

sped

spend

spent

spent

spill

spilled/spilt

spilled/spilt

spin

spun

spun

spit

spit/spat

spit

split

split

split

spread

spread

spread

spring

sprang/sprung

sprung

stand

stood

stood

steal

stole

stolen

stick

stuck

stuck

sting

stung

stung

stink

stank

stunk

stride

strod

stridden

strike

struck

struck

string

strung

strung

strive

strove

striven

swear

swore

sworn

sweep

swept

swept

swell

swelled

swelled/swollen 

swim

swam

swum

swing

swung

swung

take

took

taken

teach

taught

taught

tear

tore

torn

tell

told

told

think

thought

thought

thrive

thrived/throve

thrived

throw

threw

thrown

thrust

thrust

thrust

tread

trod

trodden

understand

understood

understood

uphold

upheld

upheld

upset

upset

upset

wake

woke

woken

wear

wore

worn

weave

weaved/wove

weaved/woven

wed

wed

wed

weep

wept

wept

wind

wound

wound

win

won

won

withhold

withheld

withheld

withstand

withstood

withstood

wring

wrung

wrung

write

wrote

written

Przykładowe zdania w Past Simple będą brzmiały:

I went home – Poszedłem do domu.

You sang a song – zaśpiewałeś piosenkę.

He drank coffee – On wypił kawę.

She sat down – Ona usiadła.

It broke – To się złamało.

We wrote an e-mail – Napisaliśmy maila.

You told me – Powiedzieliście mi

They showed their new house – Oni pokazali swój nowy dom.



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Podręczna lista czasowników nieregularnych
infinitive/past simple/past participle
abide/abode/abode
alight/alit/alit
arise/arose/arisen
awake/awoke/awaked
be/was,were/been
bear/bore/born
beat/beat/beaten
become/became/become
befall/befell/befallen
beget/begot/begot
begin/began/begun
behold/beheld/beheld
bend/bent/bent
bereave/bereft/bereft
beseech/beseeched/beseeched
bestride/bestrode/bestridden
bet/bet/bet
betake/betook/betaken
bid/bid/bid
bind/bound/bound
bite/bit/bitten
bleed/bled/bled
blow/blew/blown
break/broke/broken
breed/bred/bred
bring/brought/brought
broadcast/broadcast/broadcast
build/built/built
burn/burnt/burnt
burst/burst/burst
bust/bust/bust
buy/bought/bought
cast/cast/cast
catch/caught/caught
chide/chid/chid
choose/chose/chosen
clap/clapped/clapped
cleave/cleft/cleft
cling/clung/clung
clothe/clad/clad
come/came/come
cost/cost/cost
creep/crept/crept
crow/crew/crowed
cut/cut/cut
dare/dared/dared
deal/dealt/dealt
dig/dug/dug
dive/dived/dived
do/did/done
draw/drew/drawn
dream/dreamt/dreamt
drink/drank/drunk
drive/drove/driven
dwell/dwelt/dwelt
eat/ate/eaten
fall/fell/fallen
feed/fed/fed
feel/felt/felt
fight/fought/fought
find/found/found
fit/fit/fit
flee/fled/fled
fling/flung/flung
fly/flew/flown
forbid/forbade/forbidden
forecast/forecast/forecast
foresee/foresaw/foreseen
foretell/foretold/foretold
forget/forgot/forgotten
forgive/forgave/forgiven
forsake/forsook/forsaken
freeze/froze/frozen
get/got/got
give/gave/given
go/went/gone
grind/ground/ground
grow/grew/grown
hang/hung/hung
have/had/had
hear/heard/heard
hide/hid/hidden
hit/hit/hit
hold/held/held
hurt/hurt/hurt
inlay/inlaid/inlaid
keep/kept/kept
kneel/knelt/knelt
knit/knit/knit
know/knew/known
lay/laid/laid
lead/led/led
lean/leant/leant
leap/leapt/leapt
learn/learnt/learnt
leave/left/left
lend/lent/lent
let/let/let
lie/lay/lain
lie/lay/lain
light/lit/lit
lose/lost/lost
make/made/made
mean/meant/meant
meet/met/met
melt/melted/molten
mislead/misled/misled
mistake/mistook/mistaken
misunderstand/misunderstood/misunderstood
mow/mowed/mown
overdraw/overdrew/overdrawn
overhear/overheard/overheard
overtake/overtook/overtaken
pay/paid/paid
prove/proved/proven
put/put/put
quit/quit/quit
read/read/read
rid/rid/rid
ride/rode/ridden
ring/rang/rung
rise/rose/risen
rive/rived/riven
run/ran/run
saw/sawed/sawn
say/said/said
see/saw/seen
seek/sought/sought
sell/sold/sold
send/sent/sent
set/set/set
sew/sewed/sewn
shake/shook/shaken
shave/shaved/shaven
shear/shore/shorn
shed/shed/shed
shine/shone/shone
shoe/shod/shod
shoot/shot/shot
show/showed/shown
shrink/shrank/shrunk
shut/shut/shut
sing/sang/sung
sink/sank/sunk
sit/sat/sat
slay/slew/slain
sleep/slept/slept
slide/slid/slid
sling/slung/slung
slink/slunk/slunk
slit/slit/slit
smell/smelt/smelt
sneak/sneaked/sneaked
sow/sowed/sown
speak/spoke/spoken
speed/sped/sped
spell/spelt/spelt
spend/spent/spent
spill/spilt/spilt
spin/span/spun
spit/spat/spat
split/split/split
spoil/spoilt/spoilt
spread/spread/spread
spring/sprang/sprung
stand/stood/stood
steal/stole/stolen
stick/stuck/stuck
sting/stung/stung
stink/stank/stunk
stride/strode/stridden
strike/struck/struck
string/strung/strung
strip/stript/stript
strive/strove/striven
sublet/sublet/sublet
sunburn/sunburned/sunburned
swear/swore/sworn
sweat/sweat/sweat
sweep/swept/swept
swell/swelled/swollen
swim/swam/swum
swing/swung/swung
take/took/taken
teach/taught/taught
tear/tore/torn
tell/told/told
think/thought/thought
thrive/throve/thriven
throw/threw/thrown
thrust/thrust/thrust
tread/trod/trodden
undergo/underwent/undergone
understand/understood/understood
undertake/undertook/undertaken
upset/upset/upset
vex/vext/vext
wake/woke/woken
wear/wore/worn
weave/wove/woven
wed/wed/wed
weep/wept/wept
wet/wet/wet
win/won/won
wind/wound/wound
withdraw/withdrew/withdrawn
withhold/withheld/withheld
withstand/withstood/withstood
wring/wrung/wrung
write/wrote/written
zinc/zinced/zinced